Utkala Brahmin : उत्कल ब्राह्मण

UTKAL BRAHMIN:-
Utkal Brahmins/Brahman: - Research & Encyclopedia.
Utkal means that are best in art and those who were Brahmin by caste and best in art were known as Utkala Brahmin/Utkal Brahmin (उत्कल ब्राह्मण ).Utkala alternative spelling Utkal is also a name was given to a native or resident of Utkala state. Now Utkal Brahmins are found in Odisha and its neighboring states border like, West Bengal, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Jharkhand and other parts of India and abroad.
Background:-
The Utkala Kingdom was located in the eastern portion of the modern-day Indian state of Odisha. This kingdom was mentioned in the epic Mahabharata, with the names Utkala, Odra Desha, Oddiyana and Okkali. The name of Utkal is mentioned in the Puranas, Epics, and different religious textbook.

According to Skanda Purana, the land of Utkala is the holy land in Bharata Varsha where Purusottama Kshetra(पुरुषोत्तम क्षेत्र जगन्नाथपुरी) is situated. 
The Utkala Kingdom was also known as Kalinga, Kangoda, Odra Desha, Mahakantara, Dakhina Koshala, Danda Bhukti, Uddisa Subah etc, in the different time period.
Suryavanshi emperor of Orissa Gajapati Kapilendra Dev renamed his kingdom from Utkala to Orissa Rastra.
 It is pertinent to mention here that the boundary of the Greater Utkala region was from the mouth of river Ganges in the north to the river the Godavari in the south and Amarkantak hills in the west to the Bay of Bengal in the east and its focal point was Utkala kingdom. 

History of Utkal Brahmins/Brahman:-
In India, there are four abodes of God widely known as Char Dham. Char Dham as defined in modern days are the names of four pilgrimage sites in India that are widely revered by Hindus. It comprises Badrinath, Rameswaram, Dwarka, and Puri. It is considered highly sacred by Hindus to visit Char Dham during one's lifetime. These destinations are spread across four different directions of the country – Badrinath Dham is located in the north, Rameswaram in the south, Dwarka in the west and Puri in the east.
Jagannath Dham Puri is located in the state of Odisha. The entire monarch of Odisha was the devotee of Lord Jagannath, they invited Brahmins from various part of India and dedicated the ritualistic responsibility of Jagannath temple and other temples of erstwhile Odisha. All the monarchs of Odisha and their feudatories and also Queens constructed temples, roads, Ghats, tanks and established the settlement for Brahmins with tax-free home & land and agricultural holdings. Due to this reason, Odisha was one of the favorite destinations for the Brahmin community of India.

The Sailodbhava dynasty (6th - 7th century AD)  rulers made arrangements for the study of Vedic wisdom(वैदिक ज्ञान) and invited Brahmins from North India and  some invited Brahmins were settled there. An Ashwamedha (अश्वमेध) sacrifice(यज्ञ) was performed by King Madhab Barman in the 7th century , he invited Brahmins from Gangetic Valley for performing a yagna/yajna(यज्ञ), when the yajna(यज्ञ) ended the invited Brahmins were settled there.


At the time of Keshari rulers, Shaivism gained importance and Shaivite & Shakta Brahmins were invited. In 9th-century Utkala adhipati Yajati Keshari, to preserve the sanctity & purity of Brahmanism, brought 10,000 Brahmins from Gangetic valley and Kannauj
and settled them in his capital Yajati Nagar or Yajna Pura(modern-day Jajpur district of Odisha). The Jajpur area was once famous for organizing Somayajna, Shrauta karma. It’s a famous site for the performance of ancestral rites, known as Nabhi Gaya.

Elite Brahmins were brought by Sri Anangabhim Dev III, kings of the Eastern Ganga dynasty in 1230 A.D  from Kanyakubja, Ujjain and dedicated the ritualistic responsibility of Jagannath temple and some other temples. The king bestowed them with land and other endowments for living a dignified life. They were settled in some villages near Jagannath temple & in and around Puri district, such Brahmin villages were called 'Sasanas(Sasan means land donated by the king). Sasan villages were autonomous with revenue, judiciary and law and orders. Each such village had a Kotha comparable to a trust board and Mahajan mela comparable to Gramsabha of the modern days/in the present day. Due to the withdrawal of royal patronage and some other reasons, some of these Brahmins later migrated to various other parts of present-day Odisha and its neighboring states. Some were settled in ex - Princely states being invited by Rajas of those states. Many Utkal Brahmins also migrated to present day lower Bengal/ Bangladesh.
Eastern Ganga dynasty (1078–1434 AD) brought the greater number of Brahmins from all over North India, especially from Kannauj ,Ujjain.
and Ahichchhatra. ( Ahichchhatra or Ahi-Kshetra (अहिछत्र) was the ancient capital of Northern Panchala, a northern Indian kingdom mentioned in Mahabharata present-day Ramnagar village and its adjacent area- of Bareilly district of Uttar Pradesh).
As Odisha then Utkala grew to an affluent kingdom, many Brahmins of Godavari delta region also migrated to settle in Mahanadi basin. 
Many Brahmins like Mishra,Pandey ,Dwivedi, Trivedi,  Chaturvedi, Tripathy,  Upadhyaya,Tiwary,  Sharma,Joshi  along with some Mahant  from Kashi, Kanpur,Gonda, Shravasti.
( that belongs to Devipatan division of Uttar Pradesh near Balrarpur,  some 170 kilometers  north-east of Lucknow), Takari of Magadha ,Sonpur (Bihar) and upper Gangetic plain (West Uttarpradesh & Uttarakhand) migrated to the coastal districts of Odisha in antiquity from time to time.Many Brahmins from the lineage & disciple of Kripacharya (कृपाचार्य) and from other Gurukul( गुरुकुल)were invited by King of Utkala and their feudatories to perform duty of Rajguru and religious function and matter related to religion, from HastinapurHastigram
 (In the present-day it is a town in the Doab region of Uttar Pradesh in India around 37 km from Meerut and 90 km north-east of Delhi). 
Hampi
Few Brahmins from Hampi (Karnataka) and Narmada River Basin also migrated to the Utkal Kingdom at times.

Six categories of duties were assigned to them-teaching(अध्यापन), studying(अध्ययन), offering yajna(यज्ञ), officiating at yajna, giving gifts and accepting gifts. 
Several Brahmin villages were established by the Surya Vamsi king of Odisha, Gajapati Kapilendra, in the 15th century A. D. Each village devoted to a hundred Brahmin families with adequate tax-free land.It is pertinent to mention here many skillful Agrarian Brahmins from Uttar Pradesh,Bihar and  some other states were migrated to Odisha from time to time.
*It is also pertinent to mention here not only Utkal Brahmins migrated to Odisha various other people from other community who had the ability in their field migrated to Odisha at times.
Origin of Utkal Brahmin:-
Utkal Brahmins are consisting of various Brahmins mainly from the Gangetic valley who were considered one of the best among the Brahmins community of India to preserve the sanctity & purity of Brahmanism and matter related with, who later grouped under Utkal Brahmins.
Utkala Brahmins is a part of Pancha-Gaur Brahmins. Utkal Brahmins were brought by kings of Utkal / Kalinga / dynasty from various part of India at times as they were considered one of the best among the Brahmins community of India to preserve the sanctity & purity of Brahmanism.


Kapila Purana says
वर्षाणां भारत श्रेष्ठ देशानां उत्कल स्मृतः उत्कलस्य समदेशोः देशोः नास्ति महीतले


Utkal Brahmins occupy 9% of the total Oriya Speaking population of Odisha, beside this neighboring states border district Utkal Brahmin occupy a considerable percentage of the total population of those districts. Utkal Brahmins are responsible for priestly and related functions at the Jagannath Temple in Puri and other temples in erstwhile Odisha rulers and their feudatories. Jagannath Temple is also known as Jagannath Dham Puri, where Lord of the Universe 
Shri Jagannath deity is installed and it is one of the four holiest religious places of Hindus. Utkal Brahmins are also responsible for priestly functions of other religious places of the state of Odisha and of neighboring states.
Mukti Mandap of Jagannath temple, the seat of learned Utkal Brahmins.
Mukti Mandap (the platform for salvation or congregation hall of the holy seat of selected learned Brahmins) is situated at the southern side of the Jagannath temple of Puri. Sankaracharya of Govardhana matha is the permanent president of Mukti Mandap. He is entitled to sit on Mukti Mandap on Asan or floor mats which are not allowed to any other person. Ramchandra Dev, the first king of Bhoi Dynasty installed as Raja of Khurda is said to have renovated the Mukti Mandap with 16 pillars. He recognized 16 Brahmin villages (Known as Shola Sasan Village) and the learned and leader Brahmins of those villages seat in the Mukti Mandap. Kashyapa gotri Nanda, Bachchas (बच्चस), Bhatta Mishra and Goutamatreya gotra- Brahmins were taken as the Rajguru of Gajapati kings and they were allowed to sit on the Mukti mandap to adjudicate inter caste and inter-village disputes and  other matter
The composition of Utkal Brahmin/Brahman:-
Utkal Brahmins is a part of Pancha-Gaur Brahmins and it is consisting of Various Brahmins (like Saraswat, Kanyakubja, etc) of North India.  It is pertinent to mention here, Panch-Gaur and Panch-Dravida are two chief divisions of Brahmins, as per the shloka from Rajatarangini of Kalhan / Kalhana:-
कर्णाटकाश्च तैलङ्गा द्राविडा महाराष्ट्रकाः ।
गुर्जराश्चेति पञ्चैव द्राविडा विन्ध्यदक्षिणे ॥
सारस्वताः कान्यकुब्जा गौडा उत्कलमैथिलाः ।
पञ्चगौडा इति ख्याता विन्ध्स्योत्तरवासिनः ॥
Translation: The Karnatakascha, Tailangas, Dravidas, Maharashtraka and Gujjars, these five types who live south of Vindhya mountains are called "five Dravidas" Brahmins.

The five Dravidian Brahmins are as under.
1. Gurjara Brahmans (Gujarati,Marwari and Mewari Brahmins).
2. Maharashtraka Brahmans (Maharashtrian Brahmins)
3. Karnataka Brahmans (Kannada Brahmins)
4. Talianga Brahmans(Telugu Brahmins)
5. Dravidian Brahmins(Brahmins of Tamil Nadu and Kerala)
The Saraswatas, Kanyakubj, Goudas, Utkalas, and Maithili, who live north of Vindhya mountains are known as "five Gour" Brahmins. The five Gaur or Gaud Brahmins are as under.
1. Gaud Brahmins
2. Kanyakubja Brahmins
3. Maithil Brahmins
4. Utkal Brahmins (consisting of various Brahmins)
5. Saraswat Brahmins (Who lives near Saraswati river, including Gaud Saraswat Brahmins, who have migrated to the south of Vindhyas).
Genetics of Utkal Brahmins (उत्कल ब्राह्मण के आनुवंशिकी):-
Utkal Brahmins were migrated from North India in the  group,they settled with their groups and married only  with the groups/ community of the  same origin, keeping in mind Gotra,sutra and Pravara. From the time of migration to 1950-1960 AD,  marrying rates with other community is almost Nil. After 1960  some Utkal Brahmins did love marriage with other communities but that is only .001%.Due to this reason, in the phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree the Utkal Brahmins showed close affinity to populations of Brahmins of North India.

Classification of Utkal Brahmins:-
The Utkal Brahmins are of three classes
• Vedic/Shrauta (वैदिक/श्रौत ब्राह्मण) Brahmins.
• Purohita/Sevayata  (पुरोहित/पुजारी/सेवायत ब्राह्मण) Brahmins.
• Halua Brahmin (हळुआ ब्राह्मण)/Ayachak Brahmin( अयाचक ब्राह्मण) (Agrarian Brahmins. )
Again there are sub-classes in these three classes:
1.Vedic/Shrauta (वैदिक/श्रौत ब्राह्मण) Brahmins:-
The Vedic Brahmins are those who follow Vedic rule & regulation. They are the ancient Brahmins and interpreters,messenger and teachers of Vedas & author of Vedic other religious books.They are noble,pious,saintlike Brahmins.
They are also called Srauta(श्रौत) Brahmins.  They follow Shruti (Shruti describes the sacred texts comprising the central canon of Hinduism viz. Vedas, Brahmanas, Aranyakas, & Upanishads) traditions.
They remain engaged in 6 deeds, teaching(अध्यापन), studying(अध्ययन), offering yajna(यज्ञ), officiating at yajna(यज्ञ), giving gifts and accepting gifts. They give more importance to Veda, daily Upasana, and Agnihotra. Only these groups of Brahmins have right to conduct Yagyas. Surnames of Vedic Brahmins: -Misra,Nanda etc.

 Subclasses:
A) Kalinga Vedic/ Shrauta(वैदिक ब्राह्मण) Brahmins:-
The Brahmins who have come from undivided regions of previous Dhenkanal, Sambalpur, Cuttack, Puri, and Ganjam. They stay south of Brahmani River. They marry among themselves. 
B)Jajpuria Vedic/Shrauta(वैदिक ब्राह्मण) Brahmins:-The sub-class which has come from Jajpur and the north Odisha area.  They stay north of Brahmani River. First, they settled in areas around Baitarani River.
These above two sub-classes are eligible to perform Shrauta rites, they abstain from doing temple services and they seldom intermarry with other Brahmins.
2Purohita/Sevayata (पुरोहित/पुजारी/सेवायत ब्राह्मण ) Brahmin:-
They are noble,pious Brahmins. They are also known as Sevaka, Purohit, Brahmins. They give more importance to service of God, temple worship, and priesthood.
 They read Veda and teach it. Some of them follow Agama.
The term Agama (आगम)literally means tradition or "that which has come down", and the Agama texts describe cosmology,
epistemology, philosophical doctrines, precepts on meditation and practices of yoga, mantras, temple construction, deity worship.The majority of purohita Utkal Brahmins migrated to Utkal dynasty from Uttar Pradesh and near the bank of Saraswati river.
 The Purohita/ Sevayata (पुरोहित/पुजारी/सेवायत ब्राह्मण ) sections of Brahmins are divided into three sub-classes. Those are as follows
A) Devalaka(Deyulia)Brahmins:-
 [Surnames:- Badapanda, Pujapanda etc]. Their main occupation is the service of the temple Gods and Goddess. Many of them expertise in Vedic Karmakanda( marriage, upanayana etc) as well as temple worship.
Most of the Daitapati sevayatas of Jagannath Temple, Puri and Lingaraja Temple,Bhubaneswar belong to this subclass. Most of the temple in Odisha have this subclass of Brahmins as chief priests. They marry among themselves. 
b) Paniyari(Panda)Brahmins:- [Surnames - Panda]. They are also from the priestly section, some do rites and some do temple services, They travel all around India, encouraging pilgrims to visit the temples of Lord Jagannath.They have the power to populate very fast and spread everywhere by the grace of Lord Jagannath. The majority of paniyari Brahmins migrated to Utkal dynasty from central and east Uttar Pradesh.They have a high percentage of population among all Utkal Brahmins.
c)Jhadua(Aranyaka)Brahmins:- They are also known as Panchadesi Brahmins and Aranyaka Brahmins.The Aranyakas constitutes the philosophy behind ritual sacrifice of the ancient Indian sacred texts, the Vedas. They typically represent the earlier sections of Vedas, and are one of many layers of the Vedic texts.  They constitute a good number of population of  Utkal Brahmins in Odisha and its neighboring states. They are the Brahmins of Kannauj of (Uttar Pradesh) north India.
3.Halua Brahmin(हळुआ ब्राह्मण)/Ayachak Brahmin( अयाचक ब्राह्मण) (Agrarian Brahmins). 
That who cultivates in their own field and agriculture is their main occupations are called Halua. Those who are halua by occupation and Brahmin by caste are called Halua Brahmins. They are noble,pious, prosperous  & warrior Brahmins.
Origin of Halua/ Ayachak Brahmin( अयाचक ब्राह्मण) /Khandavayan/Bhumihar Brahmin:-
In India many years ago, a huge battle was fought against Kshatriya king of lunar race( चन्द्रवंशी राजा) Sahasrabahu (who killed Rishi Jamdagni) led by  Bhagwan Parshuram, son of Rishi Jamdagni.
In this war, most of the Brahmins of Aryavarta participated. Lord Parashuram was victorious in this war, and after this war many Brahmins gave up their sacred duty of Shrauta and Smriti (The oral tradition of the Vedas (Shrauta) is  Sruti. Sruti(श्रुति) is meant for recitation of hymns of veda or "that which is heard" ) and smriti  (स्मृति) is meant to be kept in memory or "that which is remembered)  and got involved in the field of agriculture from time to time to become self-reliant, which came to be called as ayachak Brahmin(अयाचक ब्राह्मण)  or Khandavayan or Halua Brahmin.
which in the long run are called  Bhumihar, Tyagi(ब्राह्मण जब शास्त्र छोड शस्त्र उठाता है तब वो त्यागी कहलाता है),Mahial, Galav, Chitpavan, Namboodiripad, Niyogi, Anavil, Carve, Rao, Hegde and Aiyar etc
They are also known as Balaram gotri or Mahasthana Brahmins. History says Halua Brahmins were the village leaders, administrators of Brahmin ancestry. They do Shraadha and associate in temples and religious functions.  Most of them are business- oriented also do cultivation of lands. Halua Brahmins are mainly found in and around South Odisha,West Bengal and its neighboring State. Bhumihars are mainly found in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh.Chitpavan, Namboodiripad, Niyogi, Anavil, Carve, Rao, Hegde and Aiyar are found in southern states of India. They are generally prosperous and wealthy.  Many of them migrated to neighboring state of Odisha and other countries. There is also a significant migrant population of Halua Brahmins  in Mauritius, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana and some other countries.
Gotra of Utkal Brahmins:-
The full affiliation of a Brahmin is consists of (1) Gotra, (2) sutra (Vedanga/Kalpa), (3)Shakha, (4) Pravara.
Gotra:-
 The Saptarishis are the main Gotra of Utkal Brahmin. The concept of Gotra was the first attempt among the Brahmins to categorize themselves among different groups. In the beginning, these Brahmins recognized themselves by the names of various rishis like Kashyapa Bhardwaj, Angirasa, Atri, Gautam, Bhrigu, Vasistha, and Kutsa. It is to be noted that Vishwamitra was initially a Kshatriya king, who later chose and rose to become an ascetic rishi. Hence the gotra was applied to the grouping, stemming from one of these rishis as his descendants. Many lines of descent from the major rishis were later grouped separately. Accordingly, the major gotras were divided into Ganas (subdivisions) and each gana was further divided into groups of families. The term gotra was then frequently started being applied to the ganas and to the sub-ganas. Every Brahmin claims to be a direct patrilineal descendant of one of the founding rishis of a certain gana or sub-gana. It is the gana or sub-gana that is now commonly referred to as Gotra. Over the years, the number of gotras increased due to descendants of original Rishi also started new family lineage or new gotras by intermarriage with other sub-groups of the same caste and inspired by another rishi whose name they bear as their own gotra. Gotra& Pravara parampara are followed in families of Utkal Brahmins. During Upnayan, Vivaha, Sandhya Vandana and other ceremonies it is revered. Different gotras trace to original seven Sapta Rishis, It is pertinent to mention here that the names of the current saptarishi are Kashyapa, Atri, Vashista, Vishvamitra, Gautama, Jamadagni, and Bharadwaja.
The Saptarishis keep changing for every Yuga. As per Hindu Shastras, there are four yugas: Sat / Satya Yuga, Treta Yuga, Dapara Yuga and Kali Yuga. We are at present in the Kali Yuga, which will last for 432,000 years (we are in 5110 years now in 2019); Dvapara Yuga is twice Kali Yuga, Treta Yuga is thrice Kali Yuga and Krita/Satya Yuga is four times Kali Yuga.
गोत्र मोटे तौर पर उन लोगों के समूह को कहते हैं जिनका वंश एक मूल पुरुष पूर्वज से अटूट क्रम में जुड़ा है। व्याकरण के प्रयोजनों के लिये पाणिनि में गोत्र की परिभाषा है 'अपात्यम पौत्रप्रभ्रति गोत्रम्' (४.१.१६२), अर्थात 'गोत्र शब्द का अर्थ है बेटे के बेटे के साथ शुरू होने वाली (एक साधु की) संतान्। गोत्र, कुल या वंश की संज्ञा है जो उसके किसी मूल पुरुष के अनुसार होती है  गो अर्थात् इन्द्रियां, वहीं त्र से आशय है रक्षा करना, अत: गोत्र का एक अर्थ 'इन्द्रिय आघात से रक्षा करने वाले' भी होता है

Sutra:-
प्रतिष्ठित ऋषियों की शिक्षाओं को सूत्र कहा जाता है। प्रत्येक वेद का अपना सूत्र है। सामाजिक, नैतिक तथा शास्त्रानुकूल नियमों वाले सूत्रों को धर्म सूत्र कहते हैं, आनुष्ठानिक वालों को श्रौत सूत्र तथा घरेलू विधिशास्त्रों की व्याख्या करने वालों को गॄह् सूत्र कहा जाता है। सूत्र सामान्यतः पद्य या मिश्रित गद्य-पद्य में लिखे हुए हैं।The teachings of Veda by eminent rishis are called sutras.  Every Veda has its own sutras. The sutras that deal with social, moral and legal principles are called Dharma sutras. The sutras that deal with ceremonials are called Srauta sutras. The sutras that deal with domestic rituals are called Grihya sutras. The sutras of different shakhas are as under;-
• Rigveda: Ashwalayana Shrauta and Grihya Sutra(Shakal Shakha)
• Shukla Yajurveda: Katyayana Shrauta and Paraskara Grihya(Kaanva Shakha)
• Samaveda: Drahyayana Shrauta and Gobhilya grihya (Kauthuma Shakha)
• Atharvaveda: Vaitana Shrauta and Kaushika grihya(Paippalada Shakha).
Shakha of Utkal Brahmins:-
 मूलवस्तु से निकले हुए विभाग अथवा अंग को शाखा कहते हैं - जैसे वृक्ष की शाखा। वैदिक साहित्य के संदर्भ में वैदिक शाखा शब्द से उन विशेष परंपराओं का बोध होता है जो गुरु-शिष्य-प्रणाली, देशविभाग, उच्चारण की भिन्नता, काल एवं विशेष परिस्थितिजन्य कारणों से चार वेदों के भिन्न-भिन्न पाटों के रूप में विकसित हुई। Shakha (Sanskrit Shakha means "branch" or "limb") is a Hindu theological school that specializes in learning certain Vedic texts/traditional texts followed by such a school.
Brahmins were divided into several Sakhas or branches, based on interpretations and implementation/adoption of Vedas by a theological school. An individual follower of a particular school is called a Sakhin. The vaidika shakha may vary from family to family in all of the above Vedic Brahmins  (श्रौत/वैदिक ब्राह्मण) and Sevayatas (पुजारी ब्राह्मण). Majority of them follow Kaanva Shakha (काण्व शाखा) of Shukla Yajurveda or Kauthum shakha (कौथुमी शाखा) of Samaveda. Whereas Brahmins belonging  Shakala shakha (शाकल शाखा)of Rigveda and Paippalad shakha (पिप्पलाद शाखा) of Atharvaveda and Madhyandina shaka (माध्यन्दिन शाखा) of Shukla Yajurveda are less.

 It is thought that the existence of Rigveda Brahmins is due to Govardhan Matha of Adi Shankaracharya(Adi Shankara). The Paippalad  Shakha (पिप्पलाद शाखा) of Atharvaveda (अथर्ववेद) found in Odisha trace their origin from Narmada basin, it is generally assumed that they migrated during Eastern Ganga Dynasty.  Many Brahmins having surname Upadhyaya and Acharya have Paippalada shaakha as their family Shakha.
Pravara of Utkal Brahmins:-
According to Brahmanical culture, there are gotrakarins or eight rishis from whom the remaining 49 or more gotras are evolved or descended. They are Angiras, Gautama, Bharadwaja, Vishvamitra, Vasistha, Kashyapa, Atri and Agastya. The remaining all gotras other than gotrakarins are said to be Pravaras.
Pravara means best Rishi- श्रेष्ठ ऋषि.
List of Brahmin Gotras and Pravaras:-
The list of gotras and pravaras found in the Brahmin community of Hinduism are:-Agastya,Atreya/Atri,Angirasa,Alambyayan,Badarayana,Bakshi,Bhalki,Bharadwaj,Bhargava,Bramhabhatt,Buddhi,Chyavana,Chikitasya,Dalabhya,Dhananjaya,Gaur,Garga,Gautama,Harita,Kankar,Koshish,Koshis,Kaushik,Kanva,Kapil,Kaundinya,Katyayana,Kashyapa,Kutsa,Lakhi,Lohita,Maitreya/Mitra,Mandavya,Pourugutsa,Pautamarshi,Parashara,Salankayana,Sankrithi,Savarna,Soral,Shandilya,Shukla,Shunak,Srivatsa,Suryadhwaja,Vadhoola,Vashistha,Vasudev,Vatsayana,Vishwamitra,Vishnuvardhan,Yaska,etc.
Lineage of Gotra Karnis and pravar:-  
1. Kashyapa:- Kashyapa, Aavatsara, Daivala
2. Gautam:- Angiras, Aayasyasa, Gautam
3. Bharadwaja:- Angiras, Barhaspatya, Bharadwaja
4. Vatsa/Srivatsa:- Bhargava, Chyavana, Apnavana/Apnuvat, Aurava, Jamadagnya
5. Atreya/Krishnatreya:- Atreya, Aarchanaasa, Syaavaasva 
6. Kaushika:- Vaiswamitra, Aghamarshana, Koushika
7. Kutsa/Kauchhasa:- Aangirasa, Maandhatra, Koutssa
8. Shandilya;- (2 Variations/Types)
1. Kasyapa(2nd), Aavatsaara, Sandilya
2. Kasyapa (2nd), Daivala, Asitha
9. Gargyasa/Gargi;- (2 Variations/Types)
1. Angirasa, Bharhaspatya, Bharadwaja, Sainya, Gargya
2. Angirasa, Sainya, Gaargya
10. Sunkriti ;-( 2 Variations/Types)
1. Angirasa, Kowravidha, Saankritya
2. Sadhya, Kowravidha, Saankritya
11. Harita/Haritasya:-(2 Variations/Types)
1. Harita, Ambarisha, Yuvanasva
2. Angirasa, Ambarisha, Yuvanasva
12. Kowndinya:-Vashishta , Maitraavaruna, Kowndinya
13. Kapinjala:-Vashishta, Aindrapramada, Abharadvasavya.
14. Paraasara:-Vashishta, Saaktya, Paarasarya.
15. Moudgalya;- (3 Variations/Types).
1. Angirasa, Bharmyasva, Mowdgalya
2. Tarkshya, Bharmyasva, Mowdgalya
3. Angirasa, Dhavya, Mowdgalya
16. Aagastya:- Aagastya, Tardhachyuta, Sowmavaha
17. Kanava:- (2 variation).
1.Angirasa,Ajameedia,Kanva.
2.Angirasa,Kowra,Kanav
18.Naitruva Kashyapa:-Naitruva,Kashyapa,Avatsara
19.Viswamitra:-Viswamitra,Devbrata,Owtala
20.Suryadhaja:- Bharadwaj,Lakhi(Mehrishi),Soral,Binju,Angirasa.
Other gotras which are rare are Dalabhya, Uddalaka, Katyayana, Upamanyu, Yaska, Barhishena, etc.
An opinion of Pandit Narayana Shiromani:- An expert of Brahmanism(late 18th century):-
According to Pandit Narayana Shiromani, the gotra decides the surname. He mentioned that Gautama gotra should have surname Dhara Sharma, Bharadwaja gotra should have Kar Sharma, Kashyapa gotra people should keep Nanda or Ananda Sharma, Atreya gotra people should keep Rath Sharma, Kaushika and Vatsa gotra have Dash Sharma.
Nomenclature(नामपद्धति) of Utkal Brahmins:-
The name of Utkal Brahmins men should be auspicious (शुभ/मंगलसूचक/सौभाग्यशाली). The second part and surname of a Brahmin's name should be indicating happiness (आनन्द खुशी/ प्रसन्नता सूचक). The names of Utkal Brahmins women should be pleasing and auspicious ( शुभ) easy to pronounce, should not be implying anything inauspicious( अशुभ, भयानक )Negative, (नकारात्मक/ अभावात्मक).  Name of Utkal Brahmin should not be disreputable and connected with power, wealth.
Img Courtesy: A.B. Multimedia
Rule of Upanayan of Utkal Brahmins:-
 Upanayana (Sanskrit:Upanayana- उपनयन)  is one of the traditional rites of a path of Utkal Brahmins that clear the acceptance of a student by a Guru. 
(उपनयन' का अर्थ है वह संस्कार  जिसके द्वारा बालक आचार्य के पास ले जाया जाता है ) A sacred thread, called Yagnopavitam or Janeu is placed around the left shoulder of the boy during Upanayana. It is also considered to be one of the most important and pious ones for Utkal Brahmin.

The three sacred threads (Yagnopavitam or Janeu) signify the three Goddesses. The sacred thread is made up of nine fibers, each fiber signifies as Omkar, Vishvadevata (deity of the universe), Agni (deity of fire), Vayu (deity of air), Som (deity of the moon), Prajapati (deity of procreation), Nag (serpent), Pitar (ancestors), Yama (deity of death).Bachelors should wear sacred threads with 3 strands. Married men should wear sacred threads with 6 strands. Men whose parents have passed away should wear sacred threads with 9 strands.
Upanayana should accomplish in between 8-11 years of age. According to Apastamba Gryha Sutra, the maximum age limit of Upanayana is 24 years. However, Gautama Gryha Sutra and other ancient texts state that there is no age limit and anyone of any age can undertake Upanayanam when they feel they should start their formal studies of the Vedas. 
 Marriage rules of Utkal Brahmins:-
Hindu marriage joins two individuals for life, so that they can pursue dharma (duty), Artha (possessions), kama (physical desires), and moksha (ultimate spiritual release) together.
It is a union of two individuals as husband and wife and is recognized by law. It is common practice in preparation for Hindu marriage to inquire about the kula-gotra (meaning clan lineage) of the bride and groom before approving the marriage. Marriages within the gotra ('sagotra' marriages) are not permitted under the rule of exogamy in the traditional matrimonial system. The compound word 'sagotra' is a union of the words 'sa' and 'gotra', where 'sa' means same or similar. People within the gotra are regarded as siblings and marrying such a person would be thought of as taboo. There are two kinds of gotra parampara(tradition) among Brahmins.
1.Guru –Sishya- Rishi Parampara.
2.Pita- Putra- Rishi Parampara.
When it is Guru sishya-rishi-parampara and the half or more than half of the rishis(persons) are same in both bride and grooms gotras then marriage is not acceptable. If it is Pita Putra-Rishi- parampara and only one rishi(person) matches in bride and grooms gotra then marriage is strictly restricted. 


According to Manusmriti ( मनुस्मृति ) an ancient legal text in Sanskrit, a young unmarried Utkal Brahmin woman who is neither a Sapinda (Sapinda relationship" with reference to any person extends as far as the third generation (inclusive) in the line of ascent through the mother and the fifth generation (inclusive) in the line of ascent through the father) on the mother’s side, nor belongs to the same family on the father’s side, may marry with Utkal Brahmins man   (Twice-born men)  of same Gotra. Thus Manusmriti मनुस्मृति ) gives clear idea of marriage and validity of the same gotra marriage subject to above-mentioned conditions. It is pertinent to mention here marriage ruling of Utkal Brahmins is very stringent as they follow Shruti traditions. 
मनुस्मृति के अनुसार सात पीढ़ी बाद सगापन खत्म हो जाता है अर्थात सात पीढ़ी बाद गोत्र का मान बदल जाता है और आठवी पीढ़ी के पुरुष के नाम से नया गोत्र आरम्भ होता है।लेकिन गोत्र की सही गणना का पता न होने के कारण हिन्दू लोग लाखो हजारो वर्ष पहले पैदा हुए पूर्वजो के नाम से ही अज्ञानतावश अपना गोत्र चला रहे है जिससे वैवाहिक जटिलताएं उतपन्न हो रही हैं।
Rules of conduct for Utkal Brahmins:-
Gautama's Dharma-sutra, the oldest of surviving Hindu Dharma-sutra,  states in verse 9.54–9.55 that a Brahmin should not participate or perform a ritual unless he is invited to do so, but he may attend. Gautama outlines the following rules of conduct for a Brahmin, in Chapters 8 and 9.
1. Be always truthful
2.Conduct himself as an Aryan
3.Teach his art only to virtuous men
4. Follow rules of ritual purification
5.Study Vedas with delight
6. Never hurt any living creature
7. Be gentle but dedicated
8.Have self-control
9. Be kind, liberal towards everyone
Virtues more important than rituals:-
Gautama Dharmasutra 9.24–9.
According to Gautama Dharma Sastras, every Brahmin should possess eight virtues like truthfulness, teaching the virtuous, following the rules of rituals, studying the Vedas, gentleness and nonviolence, self-control and kindness and others.
A [Brahmin] man who has performed the forty sacramental rites, but lacks eight virtues does not obtain union with or residence in the same world as Brahmins. A man who may have performed just some rites, but possesses these eight virtues, on the other hand, does.
Festivals of Utkal Brahmins/Brahmins:-
The main festival of the Utkal Brahmins are Rath Yatra, Janmashtami ,Radhastami (राधाष्टमी) ,Dol Purnima,



Gaja Laxmi Puja,Laxmi Puja, Saraswati Puja,Shivaratri beside this Sitala Sasthi , Nabanna,  Jhulan Yatra,Mahalaya,Rama Navami,Chaitra Sankranti, 
ऊं नम: शिवाय
Makar Sankranti,Deepavali,Durga Puja,Shashthi and Puda Ashtami(प्रौढ़ाष्टमी),Bipadtarini,Kalipuja etc are observed  with utmost religious sanctity.Utkal Brahmin families regularly worship Lakshmi and Narayan at home or Mandir and Shiv Puja at Shiv Mandir.
Sandhya-arati at home and Mandir with Shankha(शंख) is also a regular practice.
It is relevant to mention here - Religious function is a tool to find out the roots of any community. It is said Shri Radha was born at Barsana (बरसाना) now is a town and a Nagar Panchayat in the Mathura district of the state of Uttar Pradesh. Utkal Brahmins whose family roots were at  Barsana (बरसाना) and its adjacent area, they are still RadheyRadhe chanters and they celebrate Radhastami (राधाष्टमी) with utmost religious sanctity.
Similarly, Utkal Brahmins whose family roots were in Ujjain they celebrate Maha Shivaratri with utmost religious sanctity. Some Shakta Utkal Brahmins trace their origin from this region and some from Mithilanchal.
Food habits of Utkal Brahmins:-
 Utkal Brahmins are vegetarians (शाकाहारी).It is of two types
• Lacto vegetarianism
 (A vegetarian who abstains from eating meat and eggs).
• Pesco vegetarianism
( A vegetarian who consumes fish and seafood )

 Some Utkal Brahmins are Lacto vegetarians (शाकाहारी) and Some Utkal Brahmins are Pesco vegetarians (शाकाहारी). A few (Vedic & Purohit ) Utkal Brahmins are still strict Lacto vegetarians who abandon garlic, onion and some varieties of gourds and Masoor dal, apart from non-vegetarian food. Many Utkal Brahmins are Pesco vegetarians, which show the close influence of Shaktism(सर्वशक्तिमान  देवी को माना जाता है).Some Shakta Utkal Brahmins eat fish and sacrificial mutton, still, chicken is considered taboo by many. Most of the Utkal Brahmins share the common foods and show the fondness for sweets and Pithas like Kheer,kakhra, Gargaria etc

It is pertinent to mention here the famous white Rasgulla have been introduced by Utkal Brahmin community who are still residing in West Bengal & Odisha. During British rule, some poor Utkal Brahmins from Bankura, Purulia, Midnapur, Hooghly district of West Bengal and Odisha were employed in Bengali homes and restaurant of Kolkata as a cook and introduced Rasgulla in Kolkata. 


Activities that are forbidden to  Utkal Brahmins:-
According to the Manusmriti मनुस्मृति )making weapons, butchering animals, making or selling poisons, trapping wildlife and other jobs associated with death are forbidden to Brahmins.
The Surnames(उपनाम) and title(उपाधि/पदवी )of Utkal Brahmin/Brahman:-
Surnames and titles or decorations used along with the proper names commonly added at the end of the names - are either genealogical or professional and sometimes  topographical. The genealogical surname has been in use from generation to generation and is generally family names some of which may even have been personal names. Professional names have also been adopted as family names and are regularly used as surnames. It has been a practice for quite a few centuries to award titles to persons who occupy positions of distinction in intelligence, learning, wealth, honor etc. Persons who have rendered meritorious service to the country have also been awarded titles which have gone down from generation to generation and thus got absorbed as family names or surnames. Indian history from pre-Mughal days has shown that the ruling Hindu Kings had awarded titles to persons and families for either meritorious service to the country or for leadership in society.
This practice has been followed by the Pathan and the Mughal rulers and by their successors, the British as well. Even in independent India the Presidential awards on the Republic day is a continuation of the old practice of honoring persons for their service to the country.
Title(उपाधि/पदवी):- Many professional titles were given to Utkal Brahmins according to their profession or work. These titles were given to the Utkal Brahmins either by King or by their feudatory kings as punishment or reward. In course of time, this title became the surname and the subsequent generations inherited it. For example Satapathy title alternative spellings include Satpathi, "Satpathy" and Shatapathy.In the historical context Satapathy title (उपाधि/पदवी)was ordained to those honest,pious and noble Brahmins who were readers and interpreter of a book Shatapatha Brahmana.
Shatapatha Brahmana is a prose text describing Vedic rituals, history and mythology associated with the Sukla Yajurveda.The text describes in great detail the preparation of altars, ceremonial objects, ritual recitations, and the Soma libation, along with the symbolic attributes of every aspect of the rituals. Shatapatha Brahman is one of the best Brahman books of Yajurveda it gives direction of Vedic behavioral activity.Similarly Utkal  Brahmins  who had surrendered to  lord Jagannath or the  votary (सेवक) of  lord Jagannath  were awarded Dash title(उपाधि) alternative spelling  Das. In the course of time, this title became the surname(उपनाम/कुलनाम ) and the later generations inherited it.An Utkal Brahmin officiate at a fire sacrifice is called Hota.होता का शाब्दिक अर्थ है यज्ञ में आहुति देनेवाला अथवा यज्ञ करानेवाला पुरोहित. In the historical context,Hota title (उपाधि/पदवी) was ordained to those honest,pious and noble Brahmins who officiate at a fire sacrifice and recites invocations and litanies drawn from the Rigveda. In the course of time,this title became the surname(उपनाम/कुलनाम ) and the later generations inherited it.
The surname (उपनाम)of Utkal Brahmins in India & abroad.

There is numerous surname of Utkal Brahmins. The Main surname of Utkal Brahmins found in India and abroad are Mishra, Alternative spelling Misra,Nanda,Hota,Mahapatra,Mahanty, Alternative spelling Mahanti, Mohanty (some of them)Nayak(some of them),Nath,Singha Chaudhary,Singhababu,Sinhababu,Singha Mahapatra, SinhaMahapatra,  Satapathy,Alternative spellings include Satpathi,Satpathy, Shatapathy, Sannigrahi, Sangiri, Sarangi, Sharma, Sadangi,Sar,Sabat,Shukla,Achariya,Bhatt Mishra, Bishi, Chaini,Dubey,Alternative spelling Dwivedi,Dash,Alternative spelling Das,DasChakravarty,DasMahapatra,Dandapath,Tripathi,Tiwary,Thakur,Kar,Goswami,Mallia,Patta Joshi ,Panda ,Pathak ,Patra ,Patri ,Panigrahi,Padhi,Pati,Pyne,Pani,Pahari,Purohit,Pujari Praharaj ,Pathi,Layek,Rajguru,Rath,Ray,Alternative spelling Roy,Ray Guru,Vedi,Joshi,Gantayat etc.
Besides this many other surnames of Utkal  Brahmins are found in India and abroad. 
Misconceptions and Myths  about Utkal & Oriya Brahmin.
 It is pertinent to mention here that all Oriya Brahmins are not Utkal Brahmin similarly all Utkal Brahmins are not Oriya Brahmins.

Ambiguity on the surname of Utkal Brahmins:-
There are many surnames of Utkal Brahmins that cuts across caste lines and were given on work basis by kings in recognition of work in their respective field. For example:-
Mahapatra/ Mohapatra Surname: - 
The derivation of Mahapatra( Hindi:महापात्र) (Odia:ମହାପାତ୍ର) (Bengali:মহাপাত্র)/Mohapatra) is derived from Sanskrit word Mahan meaning great+ Patra meaning-Worthy/ deserving Man. महापात्र शब्द का शाब्दिक अर्थ महान+पात्र, अर्थात वैसा पात्र ( उपयुक्त मनुष्य ) जो अपने गुण अथवा छवि अथवा  पांडित्य अथवा वीरता से महान है .In other words highly influential individuals who, due to either their personal charisma, intelligence, wisdom,skill or bravery used their power in a way that had a decisive historical impact and had made them great man.It is one of the few surnames that cuts across caste lines and was ordained on the working basis who were highly influential individuals due to either their personal charisma, intelligence, wisdom, or skill. In the historical context, the title Mahapatra /Mohapatra is awarded by the king without prejudice of caste. In the course of time, this title became the surname and the later generations inherited it.In view of above reason Mahapatra /Mohapatra surnames are found in Utkal Brahman (mainly Vedic and Sevayats) ,Kshatriya(e.g.-Brajraj Kshatriya Birbar Chamupati Singh Mahapatra) ,kayastha,vaishya,  Maha Brahmin and other caste and due to this reason among Mahapatra/Mohapatra surname Gotra, Pravara, Sutra, Sakhas are different.It is relevant  to mention here Mahapatra alternative spelling Mohapatra is neither a caste nor a family.It is only a title(उपाधि/पदवी)। यह केवल एक उपाधि/पदवी है ,जैसे कि - Padma Bhushan - पद्म भूषण, Bidya Bhushan - विद्याभूषण, इत्यादि .
Mahapatra(ମହାପାତ୍ର) Brahmins of Odisha.
It is pertinent to mention here King of Puri awarded mainly five titles(उपाधि/पदवी) to honest,pious and noble Utkal Brahmins.
1.Rajguru Mahapatra.
2.Purohit Mahapatra.
3.Praharaj Mahapatra.
4.Badapanda Mahapatra.
5.Acharya Mahapatra 
Besides the above-mentioned title Mahapatra is awarded by the king without prejudice of caste to those who had a vast knowledge about administration and another field, who had a vast knowledge about King's court and who did the act of valour etc.For example - A highly influential individual who, due to either his personal charisma, intelligence, wisdom,skill or bravery used his power in a way that had a decisive historical impact and had made him a great man and he was a devotee of God Sri Krishna or lord Jagannath was ordained Das Mahapatra title.

 History of Mahapatra(মহাপাত্র) Brahmin in West Bengal/Bengal:-
 During the reign of Gajapati empire some Utkal Brahmins were migrated to West Bengal under the leadership of General Nakur Tung and his spiritual guide & Rajguru Sripati Mahapatra and after few years Sripati Mahapatra become King of Simlapal and his surname was changed from Mahapatra to Singha Chaudhary/ Chowdhury.Singha means powerful and Chowdhury is an ancient term denoting the head of a community or caste or  "holder of four directions".When Rajguru Sripati Mahapatra assumed title  Singha Chaudhary the younger brothers of Sripati Mahapatra assumed title Hikim and Bada Thakur and his other family members assumed  Singha Babu title. All Mahapatra Brahmins of Simlapal and its adjacent areas, lineage of Sripati Mahapatras' ancestor assumed title Singha Mahapatra and later it was shortened to Sinha Mahapatra and Singha Babu surname was shortened to Sinha Babu and both the title was further shortened by some family and become Sinha. In the course of time, these titles became the surname and the later generations inherited it.It is pertinent to mention here Sinha is used as a surname by the Kayasthas of Bihar and Jharkhand and some other caste of other state.It is relevant  to mention here family of Sripati Mahapatra  and lineage of Sripati Mahapatras' ancestor living in the Indian state of West Bengal are Vedic Brahmin(वैदिक ब्राह्मण).
Panda(पंडा) Surname & Title:-
Panda( Hindi:पंडा)(Bengali: পন্ডা)(Odia:ପଣ୍ଡା) is a surname & title found in India and abroad.They are found all Hindu pilgrimage centers of India and abroad that is why they are called Pilgrimage Priests.(गलती से लोग पांडा कहते है).
Origin of Panda(पंडा) Surname:-
There are different opinion among Brahmins about the  origin of Panda(पंडा) surname (उपनाम/कुलनाम) so it is very difficult to explain about  the origin of Panda surname, however, according to a commonly accepted opinion the words Panda is likely to be derived from word Pandit/Pundit/Pandat via Sanskrit word Pandita, meaning "Learned". In the historical context,Panda titles (उपाधि/पदवी) were ordained for those who were honest,pious pundits and had knowledge of Pilgrimage ,Genealogy, Pandulipi( Manuscript) ,cosmology,epistemology, philosophical doctrines, precepts on meditation and practices of yoga, Mantras,temple construction, deity worship,and practicing priests and promulgator of God,Pind Daan and had knowledge in another field.In the course of time, some of this title became the surname (उपनाम/कुलनाम) and the later generations inherited it. Due to this reason among Panda surname Gotra, Pravara, Sutra, Sakhas are different.
Panda Title:-
It is relevant to mention here, there are around 2500 Pandas (priest) in Haridwar and thousands in Gaya who are renowned for keeping genealogy records of the Hindu population, beside this there are many pilgrimage guides and priest in all pilgrimage centers of India & abroad, their title is Panda but surname is different.It is relevant  to mention here panda is neither a caste nor a family.It is only a title(उपाधि/पदवी)। यह केवल एक उपाधि/पदवी है।
It is pertinent to mention here  Pandey,Pandya, surnames were derived from word Pandit via Sanskrit word Pandita.
 Panda surname among Utkal Brahmins:-
 Panda( Hindi:पंडा)(Bengali: পন্ডা)(Odia:ପଣ୍ଡା) is a surname of Utkal Brahmin mostly found in Odisha, West Bengal,Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Chhatisgarh, Jharkhand and rarely found in other parts of India and abroad. They are honest,pious and noble Brahmins. They give more importance to the service of God, temple worship.Some of them  act as priests & chief priests.They are highly revered  community and devoted to Lord Jagannath ( भगवान जगन्नाथ).It is pertinent to mention here, there are many gotras of Panda surname in Utkal Brahman, some are katyayan gotri Brahmin, some are Saraswat gotri Brahmin, some are Bharadwaja gotri Brahmin and some are other. 
Dash or Das surname & Title :-
Das/Dash( Hindi:दास)(Bengali: দাস)(Odia:ଦାଶ) is  derived from the Sanskrit word Dasa  meaning servant, devotee, or votary.In Hinduism "Das or Dash" title was awarded to those who had surrendered to God Sri Krishna or lord Jagannath.
Das Title:-
Chaitanya Mahaprabhu was a Vedic spiritual leader who founded Gaudiya Vaishnavism and  inaugurated the sankirtana movement  in 16th century in Bengal, Bihar and Odisha regions  during this time many communities irrespective of caste and creed who had surrendered to God Sri Krishna or lord Jagannath  got Das title (उपाधि). In the course of time, this title became the surname (उपनाम/कुलनाम ) and the later generations inherited it. During that time many Maulika Kayastha (The Kayasthas who are not Kulins are considered Maulika Kayastha) Mahishya, Vaidyas, Bania of Bengal and many other communities of Bengal,Bihar and Odisha got Das title .It is relevant  to mention here Dash alternative spelling Das is neither a caste nor a family.It is only a title(उपाधि/पदवी)। यह केवल एक उपाधि/पदवी है। Das surname is also used by many  devotee," or "votary  of  Sikhism .
Dash surname among Utkal Brahmins:-
The Utkal  Brahmins  who had surrendered to  lord Jagannath or the  votary (सेवक) of  lord Jagannath  were awarded Dash title (उपाधि).In the course of time, this title(उपाधि) became the surname(उपनाम/कुलनाम ) and the later generations inherited it. Now Dash or  alternative spelling Das (West Bengal) titles are mostly found in Odisha,West Bengal, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Chhatisgarh, Jharkhand, and rarely found in other parts of India and abroad among Utkal Brahmins.
 Patra Surname.
Patra(Hindi:पात्र)(Bengali: পাত্র)(Odia:ପାତ୍ର) meaning-Worthy, deserving, fit, eligible, suitable. It is one of the few surnames that cuts across caste lines and was ordained on the working basis(पात्र शब्द का शाब्दिक अर्थ योग्य अथवा उपयुक्त (मनुष्य), अर्थात वैसा मनुष्य जो अपने गुण, छवि और कर्म से जानने वाला ). A Patra was someone who had sufficient training and experience or knowledge and other qualities that allowed them to assist others properly or accomplice a work perfectly. In the historical context, the title (उपाधि/पदवी) Patra is awarded by the king without prejudice of caste who were Worthy, deserving, fit, eligible, suitable in their field/area/domain. In the course of time, this title became the surname and the later generations inherited it.  In view of above reason Patra surnames are found in  Utkal Brahmin of Odisha,West Bengal & Jharkhand ,Kshatriya/Khandayat (Sanskrit word khanda-ayata,  means Master of the sword) of Odisha and Sadgop (Chasa)& some other caste  of West Bengal, Weavers of Andhra Pradesh and some other caste of other state and due to this reason among Patra surname Gotra, Pravara, Sutra, Sakhas are different. It is pertinent to mention here there are two well known  Patra in Utkal Brahmin one is Kashyap gotri Patra other is Jamadagni(जमदग्नि) gotri Patra. It is also relevant  to mention here Patra is neither a caste nor a family.It is only a title(उपाधि/पदवी)। यह केवल एक उपाधि/पदवी है।
 Patra  surname among Utkal Brahmins :-
Patra( Hindi:पात्र)(Bengali:পাত্র )(Odia:ପାତ୍ର) is a surname of Utkal Brahmin mostly found in Odisha,West Bengal,Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Chhatisgarh, Jharkhand and rarely found in other parts of India and abroad.They are honest,pious and noble Brahmins. They are highly revered  community and devoted to God. 
 Mahanty /Mahanti/Mohanty Surname:-
The derivation of Mahanty alternative spellings include Mahanti,Mohanty & Mahanthi is derived from Sanskrit word Mahan meaning great.In other words Mahanty /Mahanti /Mohanty /Mahanthi means highly influential individuals who, due to either their personal charisma, intelligence, wisdom, or skill used their power in a way that had a decisive impact and had made them great.
In the historical context the title (उपाधि/पदवी) Mahanti/Mahanthi Mohanty/Mahanty is awarded by the king without prejudice of caste to those who had vast knowledge about administration and another field, who had vast knowledge about King's court and who did act of valour etc. In course of time, this title became the surname and the later generations inherited it. In view of above reason Mohanty /Mahanti/Mahanty/Mahanthi surnames  are found in Utkal Brahmin,Karana(It's a sect of Brahmins found in  the Indian state of Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana) Kayastha ,Kshatriya (Khandayat)  and other caste and due to this reason among Mahanti/Mahanty/Mohanti/Mohanty surname Gotra, Pravara, Sutra, Sakhas are different.It is relevant  to mention here Mahanty alternative spellings include Mohanty,Mahanti/Mahanthi is neither a caste nor a family. It is only a title(उपाधि/पदवी)। यह केवल एक उपाधि/पदवी है ,जैसे कि - Padma Bhushan - पद्म भूषण, Bidya Bhushan" विद्याभूषण, इत्यादि .
 Nayak Surname.
Nayak  (Hindi:नायक)( Bengali:নায়ক)(Odia-ନାୟକ) means 'leader' or 'hero' or 'chief' or 'protagonist'. Nayak  is a historic title conferred to Sardars, Governors of the feudatories in medieval times.  Nayak  title also  conferred to leader of a community,leader of priest or chief of a group etc.In the historical context, the title (उपाधि/पदवी) Nayak is awarded by the king without prejudice of caste.In the course of time, this title became the surname(उपनाम/कुलनाम ) and the later generations inherited it. Nayak surname is found among Utkal Brahman of Odisha,West Bengal and other state, and   Kshatriya/Khandayat (Sanskrit word khanda-ayata,  means Master of the sword) of Odisha,Aguri( Ugra-Kshatriya) community of West Bengal  and Bhumihar Brahmin of Uttar Pradesh & Bihar. In Maharashtra Naik Surname is used by Marathas, CKP's, Chitpavan Brahmins and Deshastha Brahman communities  beside this Nayak is a common title used by various caste and ethnic groups across India.Due to this reason among Nayak surname Gotra, Pravara, Sutra, Sakhas are different.It is relevant  to mention here Nayak is neither a caste nor a family.It is only a title(उपाधि/पदवी)। यह केवल एक उपाधि/पदवी है ,जैसे कि - Padma Bhushan - पद्म भूषण, Bidya Bhushan - विद्याभूषण, इत्यादि .
 Nayak  surname among Utkal Brahmins:-
Nayak  (Hindi:नायक)( Bengali:নায়ক)(Odia-ନାୟକ) is a surname of Utkal Brahmin mostly found in Odisha,West Bengal,Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Chhatisgarh, Jharkhand and rarely found in other parts of India and abroad.They are honest,pious and noble Brahmins. They are highly revered  community and devoted to God.
Kar,Dandapat,Layek, Nath, Ray and many other surnames of Utkal Brahmin community are also found in Brahmin and other castes. 
 It is pertinent to mention here recently it has been observed, some scholar, educated and elite Utkal Brahmins are now adopting their root gotra as their Surname like Kashyap, Bhargava, Bharadwaj Gautam, Atri/atriya, Kaushik etc.

Utkal Brahmins in West Bengal/Bengal:-
The Indian state of Odisha has the highest percentage (9%) of Utkal Brahmin population and the Indian state of West Bengal has the 2nd highest percentage of Utkal Brahmins population.
नीलाचलनिवासाय नित्याय परमात्मने. बलभद्रसुभद्राभ्यां जगन्नाथाय ते नमः
 History of Utkal Brahmins of West Bengal:-
During the reign of Gajapati empire the Utkal Brahmins were migrated to Bankura, Purulia, Medinipur district of present-day West Bengal as representative of the Gajapati King and under leadership of  General Nakur Tung and  his spiritual guide Sripati Mahapatra, at that time these areas were under the monarch of Orissa Rastra and its name was Dandabhukti ( दंडभुक्ति ). During this time this area was dominated by robbers and robbers overthrown kings of this area several times. It is pertinent to mention here about Nakur Tung and Tung dynasty. Tung dynasty traces its descent to Som rulers/lunar race( चन्द्रवंशी ) of Rajasthan, India. They had come to Puri of Odisha in 1245 AD. Later king of Puri appointed brave heart Nakur Tung of Tung dynasty as his General and he was sent to suppress the robbers of Dandabhukti and its adjacent area. It is also pertinent to mention here about Dandabhukti. Dandabhukti was an ancient and medieval province spread across what is now Bankura, some part of Purulia, West and East Medinipur districts in the Indian state of West Bengal and Balasore alternative spelling Baleswar district in the Indian state of Odisha. Dandabhukti was broadly the territory between river Dwarakeswar and river Subarnarekha.

Palace of Mahapatra dynasty founded by Sripati Mahapatra
at Simlapal, Bankura in the Indian State of West Bengal.


According to some Utkal Brahmins of West Bengal:-
 In 1568 Muslim general Kalapahad(Muhammad Farmuli) attacked Odisha and defeated Gajapati king  Mukunda dev and conquered major towns and religious places of Odisha including  Cuttack, Jajpur, Sambalpur, Konark, Puri etc. He forcefully converted thousands of Hindus into Muslims and terrorized the Hindus by destroying many temples and Hindu deities.  Due to this reason, many people migrated to various other parts of Odisha and its neighboring state. During this time many Utkal Brahmin were migrated from Odisha and settled in Bankura, East Medinipur, West  Medinipur and Purulia districts of the present-day Indian state of West Bengal. Some Utkal Brahmins were settled in Bengal in the different time period after being invited by Rajas of this state. Many  Utkal Brahmins (Halua Brahmins /Agrarian Brahmins) were settled in Bankura,Purulia, East & West Medinipur districts of the present-day Indian state of West Bengal in the different time period after being invited by Rajas or administrators of this state.
Now Utkal Brahmins occupy a considerable percentage of the total population of Bankura, Purulia, East Medinipur, West Medinipur districts in the Indian state of West Bengal.
Surnames of Utkal Brahmins in West Bengal.
The surname of Utkal Brahmins found in west Bengal are Mishra,Mahanty,* SinghaChoudhary,*Singha Babu,*Sinha Babu*Singha Mahapatra,*SinhaMahapatra (*previously Mahapatra) ,Mahapatra,Satpathy,Satpati,Sannigrahi,Sangiri,Sarangi,Choudhary,Chaini,Das/Dash,DasChakravarty,Dandapat,Dubey,Tripathi,Tewary/Tiwary,Kar,Hota,Goswami,Nath,Patra,Pathak, Panda,Pati,Praharaj, Pyne,Pani,Pahari, Nayak,Layek,Roy/Ray etc.

Origin of Mahanty/Mahanti surname in West Bengal:-
 It is pertinent to mention here about Mahanti/Mahanty who are living in West Bengal and its adjacent area, some are Halua Brahmin and some are  Kashyap gotri Nanda previously knew as  Nanda /Anand Sharma, they are Vedic Brahmin(वैदिक ब्राह्मण) and they were taken as Rajguru of various kings. According to  Utkal Brahmin historians, Bhim Nanda and Lal Nanda were two brothers and rajguru & landowner, they resisted the attack of Maratha (Bhonsle king(भोंसले)-Maratha king of Nagpur) in 1740-1742 AD. During this time King of Panchakot gives them new Surname Mahanty/Mahanti.
 Palace of Garh Panchakot where Bhim Nanda & Lal Nanda got the Mahanty title.
Img courtesy Bodhisatta
                                                     
Later on, descendants of Bhim Nanda/Mahanty were settled at Jhar Bagda and Hirbandh area of Bengal and descendants of Lal Nanda/Mahanty were settled at Barabhum now under Indian state of West Bengal and Singhbhum now under the Indian state of Jharkhand. In course of time, the title Mahanty became the surname of their descendants.
During this time and later on offspring/descendants of Bhim Mahanty and Lal Mahanty were married to the Princess of Simlapal  and Bhelaidiha and the king of Simlapal (Utkal Brahmin king of Mahapatra dynasty) and Bhelaidiha(Utkal Brahmin king of Mahapatra dynasty) settled their son in laws and daughters at Jorisha and Nutangarh and as a result of this Mahanty/Mahanti community spread in Simlapal and its adjacent area in the Indian state of West Bengal.

It is pertinent to mention here generally Utkal Brahmins of West Bengal uses word Mahanty/Mahanti(महंती) in their surname.
Present /Current situation of Utkal Brahmins in India:-
After Independence Government of India Categorized Indian citizen into 4 Categories namely General, Schedule Caste, Schedule Tribes & OBC (Other Backward Castes). Every category enjoys reservation in Government jobs and Education except General category. The Utkal  Brahmins are falling into the General category. They are hard working, but a caste based reservation system in Government jobs and education & present scenario is a big hurdle and success become difficult for them.Now  Utkal Brahmins students are lagging behind in academics and jobs.The majority of them live in villages. They don't have that much money for settling down in big cities and ability for doing small jobs, even if they have, they hesitate to do so because their ethics never allow them to do so. In view of above, they are becoming poorer than the poor and disadvantaged population of India.
On 7.1.2019 in a significant move to address  the demands of “the economically weaker sections of the people who are not covered by any of the existing schemes of reservation”, the Government of India decided to amend the Constitution to provide 10 per cent reservation for the general category EWS in direct recruitment for government jobs and admission to higher educational institutions. A gazette notification signed by the Joint Secretary in the Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment regarding the same was released , which stated that the reservation for the economically weaker sections of the General Category has come into force from 14.1.2019.This affirmative action will bring a ray of hope for poor Utkal Brahmins of India.
Utkal Brahmin & India's Changing Demography:-India is one of the most populous countries in the world. More than one-sixth of the world’s population is living in India. Its population will be 1.6 billion by 2050. Its population growth rate is 1.2%. India has more than 50% of its population below the age of 25 and more than 65% below the age of 35. The Republic of India is now considered as one of the possible emerging superpowers of the world. According to Centre for Economics and Business Research(CEBR)  one of the UK's leading economics consultancies, Indian economy will advance to fifth place by 2018 and it will advance to third place by 2027. On the other hand, India is projected to overtake China as the world's most populous nation by 2030. India's population growth has raised concerns that it may  lead to widespread unemployment and political instability
In every democracy, Population plays a major role. Now, all most every political party wants to win the election at any cost, election-winning has been their main aim. Communities which have maximum and more united and skilled population will get more benefit. So the time has come to think in this regard, as there are serious challenges ahead in the form of caste and creed ratio and the possible rise in social and political unrest and conflicts.
Unity of Utkal Brahmins:-
During present scenario and for the future there is need of Unity of all Utkal Brahmins from India & World to bring them on  one Common Social & Economical Platform for the overall/comprehensive Development & Well-being of Brahmin's. We may remember-'United we stand, divided we fall'. Ten’s sticks together unbreakable can be broken easily if given to all. Wind easily blows the dust but cannot move the rock; Birds trapped in a net, united, along with net, flew the flock. As well, If we are united in valid and right cause, There can't be any reason that our efforts will pause.
 उत्कल ब्राह्मण के लिए ध्यान रखने वाली बातें:-
उत्कल ब्राह्मण को महान बनाने वाले सात प्रमुख बातें -शिक्षा,सहिष्णुता,संस्कार ,अहिंसा,धर्म पालन,दयालूता और वेद,वेदांत,शास्त्र कला में निपुणता।
 उत्कल ब्राह्मण के लिये अब जरुरी सात प्रमुख बातेंउच्च शिक्षा -अनुसंधान और उद्यमिता (entrepreneurship) ,अधिक सहिष्णुता,अधिक संस्कार,एकता,मेहनत,भाईचारा,धर्म पालन।
 उत्कल ब्राह्मण के लिये छोङने वाली तीन प्रमुख बातें-1-बुरी संगत, 2- कुप्रथाएँ ,
3- आपसी मनमुटाव॥
 उत्कल ब्राह्मण को जोङने वाली तीन प्रमुख बातें-1-गौरवशाली इतिहास, 2- परम्पराएँ , 3-हमारे आदर्श।





Famous Utkal Brahmins:-

1.The great poet Jayadeva(जयदेव Famous Sanskrit scholar, poet, and author of  Gitagovinda.

2.Govardhan Acharya:-Sanskrit scholar of12th century.

3. Udayan Acharya: Sanskrit scholar of the 12th century. 

4.Vishwanath Kaviraj: Sanskrit scholar of the 13th century.
श्री कृष्ण चैतन्य, प्रभु नित्यानंद, हरे कृष्ण,हरे राम  श्री राधे गोविंद

                 
5.Chaitanya Mahaprabhu(चैतन्य महाप्रभु 1486-1535): He was born in Utkal Brahmin (Jajpuria Vedic/वैदिक ब्राह्मण) family settled in Bengal on 18 February 1486. His birthplace was Nabadwip - Nadia . His family root was jajpur, Odisha, from where his ancestor was migrated to Bengal.He was a great Vaishnava saint of the Bhakti era of medieval India. Gaudiya Vaishnava is based on his philosophy. He was contemporary of the last Suryavamsi emperor of Odisha, Gajapati Prataprudra. He spent his last 24 years of life in Puri - Odisha. सूर्यवंशी सम्राट, गजपति महाराज प्रताप रुद्रदेव ने इन्हें श्रीकृष्ण का अवतार माना और वह इनके श्रीचरणों में नत हो जाते थे। চৈতন্য চরিতামৃত গ্রন্থের বর্ণনা অনুযায়ী, ১৪৮৬ খ্রিস্টাব্দের ১৮ ফেব্রুয়ারি দোলপূর্ণিমার রাত্রে চন্দ্রগ্রহণের সময় নদিয়ার নবদ্বীপে চৈতন্য মহাপ্রভুর জন্ম। চৈতন্যদেবের পূর্বপুরুষেরা ছিলেন ওড়িশার জাজপুরের আদি বাসিন্দা। তাঁর পিতামহ মধুকর মিশ্র ওড়িশা থেকে বাংলায় এসে বসতি স্থাপন করেন।

6. Jagannatha Dash(1490-1550):  -A great scholar of Sanskrit and Oriya language. His unique creation 'Srimad Bhagabata' in Oriya is one of the pioneering pieces of Oriya literature. 

7. Pandit Gangadhar Mishra. He was court poet of Maharaja Baliar Singh(1660-1690 AD) of Sambalpur Kingdom. He was reputed for his work Kosalanandakavyam.In this poem, the post-medieval social and cultural condition of Sambalpur along with rest of Odisha are reflected.

8. Justice Ranganath Misra - 21st Chief Justice of India.1st Chairman of National Human Right Commission.

9. Justice Dipak Misra- 45th Chief Justice of India.
Reminiscence of Utkal Brahmins by means of Picture:-

Jagannath temple &Mukti Mandap of Jagannath temple, the seat of Utkal Brahmins.
Jagannath temple-
Where Utkal Brahmins perform priestly functions
               
Sun Temple was constructed in 1255 CE by King Narasimhadeva 1
of the Eastern Ganga Dynasty
Lingaraja temple where Utkal Brahmins perform priestly functions.



Gajapati Palace
Baitarani river witness ups & downs of Utkal Brahmin community
Palace of Mahapatra Dynasty founded by Sripati Mahapatra at Simlapal 
Bankura-West Bengal, India
Shri Jagannath Temple (Mandir) in East Delhi. Where Utkal Brahmins
 perform priestly functions
Shri Jagannath Temple(Mandir) in East Delhi. Where Utkal Brahmins
 perform priestly functions

Inauguration of Shri Jagannath Temple in Delhi East
 and Pranpratistha by Utkal Brahmins of Puri - assisted
 by Professor Mahadeb Panda
Inauguration of Shri Jagannath Temple and Pranpratistha by Utkal Brahmins

Inauguration of Shri Jagannath Temple and Pranpratistha 
by Utkal Brahmins


Sources of Information.
*Wikipedia.
Orissa Review 2005-Published by Government of Odisha:-Brahmin Sasan Villages around Puri by Sarat Chandra Mohapatra.
Kalhana's  Rajatarangini in reference to an English version.
Forward Caste, Wikipedia.
Kapila Purana, Wikipedia.
A History of Brahman Clans(ब्राह्मण वंशो का इतिहास) in Hindi, by Dorilal Sharma, published by Rashtriya Brahmana Mahasabha, Vimal Building, Jamirabad, Mitranagar, Masudabad, Aligarh-1, 2nd ed-1998.
भारतीय ब्राह्मणों की गोत्रावली 5th ed-2010 by- L.N.Sharma. Panipat (This Hindi book contains the most exhaustive list of Brahmans gotras and pravaras together with their real and mythological histories)
Jati-Bhaskara by Pt. Jwala Prasad Misra, published by Khemraj Shri Krishna Das, Bombay, (1914).Jati-Bhaskara, page 101-102; these Slokas are also quoted in A History of Brahmin Clans, page 155
The Tribes and Castes of Central Provinces of India.
Kalhana's Rajatarangini: A Chronicle of the Kings of Kashmir; 3 Volumes > M. A. Stein (translator),(Introduction by Md Ishaq Khan), published by Saujanya Books at Srinagar,2007,(First Edition pub. in 1900), ISBN 81-8339-043-9 / 8183390439.
The Tribes and Castes of Central Provinces of India, by R. V. Russel, I. C. S. (assisted by R. B. Hira Lal),4 Vols, Macmillan, and Co; New Ed edition (2 Aug 1995) : Asian Educational Services, India; Language English, ISBN 81-206-0833-X, ISBN 978-81-206-0833-7.
Hindu Castes and Sects Jogendranath Bhattacharya; First Editions: Calcutta, 1896); New Ed: New Delhi: Munshiram Manoharlal Publications, 1995.
Mayne's "Treatise on Hindu Law and Usage, 15th ed., New Delhi: Bharat Law House, 2003.
Kane, Pandurang Vaman(1880 - 1972), "History of Dharmasastra " (ancient and mediæval religious and civil law in India), Poona: Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute. 1962 - 1975.
Hindu Manners, Customs, and Ceremonies, by Abbe J. A. Dubois, English translation first published in 1816, Reprint. 1999(Third edition. Delhi, Low Price Pub.), 2 volumes, 741 p, ISBN 81-7020-927-7.
 Manusmriti(मनुस्मृति): Translation by G. Buhler (1886). Sacred Books of the East: The Laws of Manu (Vol. XXV). Oxford. Available online at The Laws of Manu.
History of India by Herman Kulke and Dietmar Rothermund, Published 2004, Routledge, 448 pages, ISBN 0-415-32920-5.
Migrant Brahman in north India- by Swati Dutta 1989.
Shruti of Utkal Brahman.
Family historians.
Patna Plates of Maha Bhava Gupta.
Santi gram plate of Dandi Mahadevi of Bhaumakara Dynasty.
Patna Grants of Maha Shiva Gupta I Yayati.
Magazine of Simlapal MM high School (West Bengal).
Magazine of Hirbandh (West Bengal).
Collection of information from Utkal Brahmans scholars of Odisha & West Bengal.
☯ Kapalkundala-Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyaya
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GENESIS OF UTKAL BRAHMINS: उत्कल ब्राह्मण"

 has been cynosure in mind of Utkal community, UPSC aspirant from Utkal Brahmin community and other community.                                           

ABOUT PRABIR:-

Prabir Kumar Mahanti.
New Delhi, India.
About the Author:-
Prabir Kumar Mahanti was born and brought up in Utkal Brahman(वैदिक) family of Lal Nanda & Bhim Nanda in the Indian state of West Bengal. He is a former gazetted officer of Government of India and famous writer. In 1993 he qualified service commission of the Government of India and joined central Para Military forces. He has 21 years experience in the field of National security, Human resource management,  conflict management and administration. Prabir Mahanty enjoys writing and he is the author of several books & articles.  He has got fame in India & USA,Canada,Germany,France,UK,Italy,Spain and many other countries on his 2nd and 3rd book written on Prime Minister Narendra Modi. His books are sold in the whole world through Amazon.in, flipkart.com, abebooks.com, IberLibro.com (Europe),uread.com, Raj publication Delhi,BookAdda.com, BookaBook, SapnaOnline and many others.

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